Annual Report 2004
Introduction from the
I am pleased to report that 2004 proved an excellent year for
the Research Institute for a Tobacco Free society.
The Board of RIFTFS are delighted to welcome Prof Luke Clancy as
Director General of the Research Institute bringing his extensive
clinical, scientific, research and managerial expertise to the
Institute. The appointment of Prof Clancy paves the way for the
Institute to become fully operational as a research entity.
The productivity of the Institute in 2004 reflects the
leadership of Prof Clancy, the committed efforts of all members of
the Board and Staff of RIFTFS, along with professional advice and
support provided by our solicitors, McCarthy and Associates,
auditors, OSK and Dovetail Technologies for technical and
RIFTFS welcomes our research partners both Irish and
International. Such partnerships and collaboration are essential in
embracing a truly Transdisciplinary approach to research into
I am happy to announce that the Institute now has established a
headquarters in the renowned Digital Depot and has set up its
information network using the services of the Higher Education
Authority Net (HEAnet).
A major challenge in 2004 was to use the excellent opportunity
afforded to RIFTFS to monitor the effectiveness of the landmark
introduction of the Smoking Ban in March. In collaboration with our
research partners RIFTFS was able to lead a number of significant
research projects to measure the effectiveness of the ban in terms
of the improvement in the quality of air in Pubs and the resultant
improvements in Respiratory health.
Prof Clancy has been afforded numerous opportunities both
nationally and internationally to share the Irish experience of the
introduction of the workplace ban and to raise the profile of the
Financially RIFTFS has performed well in 2004, with prudent and
disciplined management of the Institutes funds. I wish to
acknowledge the financial support of the Department of Health and
Children and the Board of the Royal City of Dublin Hospital.
I would like to thank ASH Ireland, The Office of Tobacco
Control, The Irish Cancer Society, and The Irish Heart Foundation
for their continued assistance and support of RIFTFS throughout
2004. The ongoing input and commitment of the Board of Directors
and Members of RIFTFS is highly valued and appreciated.
We confidently look forward to another productive year in 2005,
in our critically important mission of providing the evidence base
to support tobacco control policy both nationally and
- Professor Ivan Perry, Professor of Epidemiology and Public
Health UCC (Chair)
- Dr Patrick Doorley, Director of Population Health, HSE.
- Mr. Tom Finlay, Chairman, Irish Cancer Society.
- Dr Michelle Egan, Irish College of General Practitioners
- Dr Charles Gallagher, Consultant in Respiratory Medicine, St
- Dr Fenton Howell, Specialist in Public Health, North Eastern
- Dr Mark Morgan, Psychologist, St Patrick's College of
- Professor Michael Ryan, Professor of Pharmacology, UCD
- Professor Miriam Wiley, Research Professor, ESRI
Mr. Justin McCarthy, Solicitor.
Mr Tom Power, CEO, Office of Tobacco Control.
Dr Bernadette Herity, Irish Cancer Society.
Dr Brian Maurer, Irish Heart Foundation.
Dr Michael Boland, Chairman, Office of Tobacco Control.
Mr John McCormack, CEO, Irish Cancer Society
Mr Michael P. O'Shea, Irish Heart Foundation
Ms Mary Carney, Former Director of Corporate Affairs/Research
Director General - Prof Luke Clancy
Research and Communications - Ms Sheila Keogan
Corporate Affairs - Ms Vanessa Clarke
Legal and Banking
OSK Accountants and Business Consultants,
East Point Plaza,
Bank of Ireland,
85 James's Street,
MacCarthy and Associates,
10 Upper Mount Street,
Coyle Hamilton Willis,
7-9 South Leinster Street,
Aims and Origins of
The Research Institute for a Tobacco Free Society (RIFTFS) is a
limited company formed on the basis of partnership between the
Office of Tobacco Control and ASH Ireland/Irish Heart
Foundation/Irish Cancer Society. The aim of RIFTFS is to form a
transdisciplinary academic community around the issue of tobacco
control and to support the development of a tobacco free society by
engaging in all aspects of research from a public health
Institute Origins & Background
In December 1998 Minister Brian Cowen T.D. agreed to ASH's
request to establish a Tobacco Control Research Institute and
founded a Steering Group Chaired by Professor David Kennedy to
develop a proposal for the establishment of the Institute.
The "Proposal for the Establishment of "Tobacco Control and
Health Research Institute for Ireland" was submitted by Prof David
Kennedy in October 1999 to Minister Brian Cowen TD.
In 2000 the establishment of a tobacco research centre was
endorsed and included in the government plan of action set out in
the Report of the Tobacco Free Policy Review Group "Towards a
Tobacco Free Society".
The Research Institute for a Tobacco Free Society (RIFTFS) was
incorporated as a limited company on the 9th of January 2002. At
the incorporation, Minister Michael Martin T.D., DOHC welcomed the
initiative and strongly supported it as an important component of
Government Strategy in achieving a Tobacco Free Society.
2004 was the first year that RIFTFS became active as a research
organisation. This became possible with the appointment of the
Director General and other institute staff. The finding of a
suitable headquarters for the Institute followed and research
Prof Luke Clancy took up appointment as Director General of
RIFTFS in December 2003. Prof Clancy is a distinguished academic
physician with an international track record in the area of smoking
and in the management and prevention of respiratory diseases. He is
well renowned for his work in air pollution and in tuberculosis. He
is in his 2nd term as Chairman of the Board of ASH Ireland and has
played a significant role in the debate on anti-tobacco legislation
in Ireland including the Ban on Smoking in the Workplace.
In May 2004 Ms Vanessa Clarke who has a background in Nursing
and Healthcare Management and Ms Sheila Keogan who has a background
in Nursing and Clinical Trials Management were appointed to the
Institute. Ms Keogan has special responsibilities in the areas of
Research and Communications and Ms Clarke in the Corporate Affairs
of the Institute. All staff works on a part time basis.
One of the initial tasks for the Institute staff was to find
suitable office accommodation at a competitive rate. In July 2004,
the Institute took up the lease of office accommodation
(c500Sq.Ft.) in the Digital Depot, Digital Hub, Thomas Street,
Dublin 8. This is a city centre location, with HEAnet conductivity
and is easily accessible to all major universities, convenient to
train, Luas and bus services.
The Digital Hub is an Irish Government initiative to create an
international centre of excellence for knowledge, innovation and
creativity focused on digital content and technology enterprises.
The nucleus of a vibrant Digital Media enterprise cluster has
successfully been established with over 50 companies across the
digital content value chain. Research groups for universities and
institutes, community groups and schools form the wider Digital Hub
digitally connected community. The attractions of the project
- Seed Enterprise Cluster
- Test Bed for Innovation
- Doorstep access to leading edge research
- Benefit of Ireland's low corporate tax
- Location - 10 minutes walk from Dublin city center
- Infrastructure - Broadband Telecommunication and Enterprise
- Government support
Some capital works were necessary within the office and these
have been completed. Office accommodation is open plan and has been
suitably furnished to accommodate the current staff members. There
are a number of shared services provided centrally within the Depot
- Meeting/Conference Rooms with state of the art presentation
- Video Conferencing Facilities
- Centralised security
- Secure storage for IT server in the NOC area
- Café Area
- Car Parking for staff and visitors
Information Technology Development/HEAnet
To ensure the effective functioning of the research institute
the development of a secure information technology system was
A detailed specification of the Information Technology
requirements was drawn up in consultation with Dovetail
Technologies. Subsequent tenders were sought for the supply,
installation and maintenance of an information system for RIFTFS. A
decision was made based on the following criteria:-
- ability to meet the technical specifications
- cost competitiveness
- company reputation
The contract was awarded to VBT.
A local area network (LAN) was established linking the three
office based PC's with a central server located in the NOC area.
There is an automated back up device to ensure safe keeping of
data. Email and Internet facilities are provided by HEAnet
(Ireland's National Educational and Research Network). Email and
web site addresses were sought and registered on behalf of RIFTFS
by Dovetail Technologies.
The services of Dovetail Technologies have been engaged to
design and develop RIFTFS website.
A phone system and fax line was installed within the RIFTFS
The RIFTFS logo has been designed and developed by "Digital Ink
Subsequently customised stationary and business cards were
It is planned that RIFTFS will develop a post graduate course in
the area of Tobacco Control. Work commenced looking at options for
developing this course using e-learning technology and distance
Prof Luke Clancy in his capacity as Director General of RIFTFS
became a Member of GLOBALink, the online international tobacco
control community network.
Subscriptions were made to a number of tobacco control
It is proposed to develop the library service within RIFTFS and
provide access to this service for the wider tobacco control
community in Ireland and in time for those students undertaking
studies in Tobacco Control.
Funding for RIFTFS in 2004 was provided by the Department of
Health and Children and from a grant received by the Royal City of
Dublin Trust Board.
RIFTFS was compliant with all statutory financial obligations
and accounts were submitted to the Companies Registration Office in
keeping with requirements.
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Scientific Meetings /
RIFTFS staff attended the following scientific meetings and
conferences in 2004:
- American Thoracic Society 100th International Conference (May
21st - 26th 2004) "The Ban on Smoking in Pubs and Restaurants in
- 8th World Congress of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Secondary
Prevention (May 23rd - 26th 2004 Dublin) Conference Speaker - Prof
- "How Healthy is Our Environment?" Environmental Health
Conference 2004 (13th & 14th May 2004, Dublin) Conference
Speaker -Prof Luke Clancy, " Internal and External Air
- 7th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Royal City of Dublin
Research and Education Institute (9th June 2004) Chair of evening
session, Prof Luke Clancy.
- "Change is in the Air - Future Directions in Tobacco Control in
the EU" (17th & 18th June 2004, Limerick) Conference Speaker, "
Strategic Direction for Research on Tobacco Control in Europe" and
Chair of Parallel Sessions - Prof Luke Clancy
- European Respiratory Society Annual Conference (4th - 8th
September 2004, Glasgow)
- "The Future in Focus - Building Research and Development
Capacity in Health Services" (October 7th & 8th 2004, HRB,
- Meeting of Representatives from House of Commons and House of
Lords - ( 7th October 2004 , Dublin) Presentation by Prof Luke
- The launch of the new national media campaign "Smoke Free is
Working" by Mr Sean Power TD, Minister of State at the Department
of Health and Children (October 21st 2004, Dublin) Presentation by
Prof Luke Clancy
- "Smoke Free Liverpool" Visit by group of Health and Local
Government Representatives from Liverpool (9th November 2004,
Dublin) Presentation by Prof Luke Clancy
- Meeting of ENSP Co-ordinating Partners in Ireland (11th
November 2004, Dublin.)
- World Conference for Cancer (16th -19th November, 2004, Dublin)
Chair of Workshop" Tobacco Laying down the Law" - Prof Luke
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RIFTFS was responsible for co-ordinating a number of research
projects in 2004.
Many of theses projects related to the evaluation of the
exposure and health effects of the Workplace Ban which was
introduced into Ireland on the 29th March 2004. An outline of the
research studies is provided below.
Particulate pollution levels
and smoking prevalence in Dublin Pubs pre and post the introduction
of the workplace smoking ban.
Introduction: On the 29th March 2004, the
workplace smoking ban came into operation in the republic of
Ireland. This was seen as an important opportunity to conduct a
rigorous scientific study into the exposure of bar workers both pre
and post the introduction of the smoking ban, and to see if the ban
would have the predicted effect in reducing indoor pollution. The
aim was also to determine if any acute health benefits could be
detected among bar staff. In anticipation of a workplace ban, early
in 2003 work commenced to develop the Dublin Bar Workers exposure
and health effect methodologies. Bar workers were chosen as they
were a working group who were viewed as having high exposure to
Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in the workplace.
Methods exposure: It was decided to measure
PM2.5 and PM10 concentration in bars pre and post the workplace
smoking ban. Measurements commenced in 40 bars, which represents
the biggest exposure based scientific study of this nature
In putting together such a study it's important to consider as
many confounding factors as possible, so a protocol was developed
for the monitoring.
All monitoring was conducted at busy times in the bars, usually
at evening times. The monitors (optical based light scattering
devices, which are portable and data logging) were placed on a
table in the centre of the bar. The device recorded readings for a
minimum of three hours at each bar. The number of people present,
the number smoking (inside or outside) was recorded each hour. The
existence and or use of ventilation systems and whether doors and
windows were open or closed were also recorded.
The post ban measurements were conducted on the same day of the
week and in the same month of the year, one year on from the
original measurements, this ensured that day of the week and
seasonal variations were controlled for. Outdoor particle
measurements were also recorded at each bar.
Benzene: Benzene is a gas emitted by burning
cigarettes, (petrol is another source), it is a known carcinogen,
and it is legislated for by the EU. Benzene concentrations in each
bar both before and after the introduction of the smoking ban were
measured. The benzene monitors were co-located with the PM10/PM2.5
||Dr Pat Goodman, Dublin Institute of Technology
||Prof Luke Clancy, RIFTFS
||Ms Marie McCaffrey, Dublin City Council.
Ultrafine Airborne Particle
Measurements in Dublin Pubs before and after the Smoking
In order to assess the impact the smoking ban has had on
airborne particle concentrations in Dublin pubs, work commenced in
measuring ultrafine particle in twelve pubs throughout the city and
county both before and after the introduction of the ban. The pre-
and post- ban measurements for each pub were carried out at the
same time of day and on the same day of the week using a P-TRAK
condensation nucleus counter. These measurements were typically
made over a four-hour period, during which a record was made of
staff, customer and smoker numbers. Pre-ban ultrafine airborne
particle concentrations on occasions reached as high as 250,000 per
cm3 with an overall average of approximately 85,000 per cm3.
||Prof James McLaughlin, Environmental Physics Group, Physics
Dept., University College Dublin.
||Prof Luke Clancy, RIFTFS
||Kevin Kelleher, Environmental Physics Group, Physics Dept.,
University College Dublin.
Evaluation of the Lung
Function of Bar Workers in Dublin Pubs Pre and Post the
Introduction of the Workplace Smoking Ban
Background: It is well recognised that passive
smoking causes respiratory, cardiac and vascular damage to those
exposed to it. Bar workers, both smokers and non-smokers are a
group with long hours of workplace exposure to high levels of
second hand smoke. The intervention to prohibit smoking in the
workplace, including bars and restaurants, provided an opportunity
to study the health effects of such an intervention.
Methods: Bar workers were recruited to the
study through their Trade Union (Mandate). 81 volunteered. The
average age was 46.9yrs (range 22 - 68yrs). They had long years of
workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke with the average
being 28.4 yrs (range 6 - 52yrs). They attended the Respiratory
Laboratory in St. James's Hospital between September 2003 and March
2004 for initial (pre ban) evaluation of breath Carbon Monoxide
(CO), spirometry (FEV1, FVC), lung volumes and diffusing capacity
(DLCO), and for similar tests a year later (post ban). In addition
a questionnaire covering history of asthma, working hours, hours of
exposure to cigarette smoke (home/ workplace), personal smoking
history, and recent respiratory symptoms was completed by each
subject. Exhaled Carbon Monoxide was measured using a MicroCo meter
(Micromedical, UK) and lung function was measured using a Vmax 22
system (SensorMedics, USA).
Following the introduction of the workplace ban, work began on
repeat measurements of the lung function of bar workers.
||Prof Luke Clancy, RIFTFS
||Dr Pat Goodman, Dublin Institute of Technology
||Ms Michelle Agnew, St James's Hospital, Dublin.
All Ireland Bar
RIFTFS was also a partner in the National Study of the Health
Impact of the Workplace Ban, known as the All Ireland Bar Study.
RIFTFS awarded research grants to Dr. Shane Allright TCD and to Dr
Birgit Greiner UCC as part funding for these studies outlined
Evaluating the health impact
on barworkers of the Republic of Ireland smoke-free workplace law
(All Ireland Bar Study)
Background: As workers in the hospitality
industry were at particular risk of high and sustained exposure to
secondhand smoke (SHS), a study was set up to evaluate the impact
of the law on bar workers' exposure to SHS and on their respiratory
health (All Ireland Bar Study). The study methods will be described
together with an update on progress to date.
Methods: The respiratory health of barworkers
was assessed, in the six months before the workplace smoking, ban,
by questionnaire and lung function tests . Exposure to secondhand
smoke (SHS) over the previous few days was assessed by measuring
salivary cotinine and verbal report. Participants were also asked
about their attitudes to the ban. A follow up survey was undertaken
one year later in order to assess changes in exposure to SHS, in
respiratory health and in attitudes. Bar staff from Northern
Ireland were also enrolled in order to control for secular changes
unrelated to the smoking ban.
The study also includes air measurement in a sample of Dublin
pubs to compare levels of exposure pre- and post-implementation of
the law (conducted at the same time of year to adjust for seasonal
||Shane Allwright, Michele Agnew, Luke Clancy, Pat Goodman, Kevin
Kelleher, James McLaughlin, Gillian Paul, Michael Ryan, Alan
||Maureen D'Eath, Marie Galvin, Michael Keogh, Saorise Nic
Gabhainn, Diarmuid O'Donovan, Lisa Pursell
||Birgit Greiner, Sangeetha Kalimuthu, Bernie Mulally, Ivan
Perry, Meenakshe Uppal
||Eamon O'Kane, Brendan Bonner, Damian Gavin, Bill McConnell
The Effect of the Legislative
ban on smoking rates among bar workers
B Mullally1, B Greiner1, I
Perry1, S Allwright2 1Department
of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College Cork,
Ireland. 2Department of Public Health and Primary Care,
Trinity College Centre for Health Science, Adelaide & Meath
Hospital incorporating the National Childrens hospital Tallaght,
Background: Bar worker health has gained a lot
of attention in Ireland due to the ban on smoking in workplaces
including bars. It is expected that the smoking ban will have a
positive effective on the smoking behaviour of Irish bar workers.
There is concern about the widening gap in mortality and morbidity
between the managerial and professional social classes, and those
with lower levels of education. As bar workers are a heterogeneous
group comprising of owners, managers, part and full time staff
(including students), social class and educational status can vary
widely. Although the overall number of smokers from 1999-2003
(SLAN,2003) has decreased, this is not occurring at the same rate
for males and females across all sectors in society or for all age
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of
smoking and smoking amount among bar workers in Cork City.
To determine the influence of social class, gender and age on
smoking behaviour in Irish bar workers.
To determine if the legislative ban has had an effect on smoking
behaviour and the role of social class, education, gender and
Method: A follow-up study on bar workers
(random, N=129; refusal rate of bars was 8%) and catering
staff(control) from Cork City was conducted before (Jan & March
2004) and planned for one year after (Jan & March 2005) the
implementation of Europe's first legislative ban on work place
smoking. This study is part of a larger national study on bar
workers' health, including participants from Cork, Dublin, Galway
and N. Ireland. Data obtained a questionnaire, a salivary sample
(cotinine) and respiratory health (FEV1 and PEF) measurements.
Attitudes of bar owners and
workers in rural Galway before and after the smoking
Lisa Pursell, Marie Galvin, Maureen, D'Eath, Michael Keogh,
Saorise Nic Gabhainn, Diarmuid O'Donovan and Shane Allwright, NUIG,
The Galway element of the muticentre study of the respiratory
health of bar workers (All Ireland Bar Study) recruited 68 bar
owners (58%) or staff (42%). Potential participants in all public
bars in County Galway were initially contacted by letter.
Arrangements were made with respondents to visit them at their
place of work for completion of a questionnaire, repiratory tests
and cotinine samples. Post-ban follow up visits are being arranged
approximately 1 year after the initial visits.
Participants were asked to state whether they agreed or
disagreed with a series of statements positing either positive or
negative aspects of the ban on smoking in public bars. They were
also asked whether they agreed or disagreed with the ban in
European Network of Smoking
In response to the call for the European Network of Smoking
Prevention (ENSP) Framework Project Applications 2004 - 2005, the
Research Institute for a Tobacco Free Society (RIFTFS) submitted a
proposal to undertake a comprehensive health impact assessment of
the Workplace Tobacco Ban in Ireland.
Studies were proposed in the following areas:-
- Changes in exposure from ETS in a number of locations pre and
post the introduction of the ban including bars, homes and
- Assessment of the characteristics and influence of the media
campaign which accompanied the proposed introduction of the
- Pharmacoeconomics of the ban in terms of cardiovascular and
respiratory drug usage changes
The proposal was successful and in 2004 a project team was
formed. The project team met regularly in 2004 and work began in
the all areas:-
Exposure: The project proposes to study the
particle exposure changes resulting from the ban and endeavour to
correlate these with nicotine measurements made in other European
laboratories within the consortium in particular the "Environmental
Tobacco Smoke Exposure in a sample of European Cities (Project
leader : Manel Norbot, PHI, Barcelona, Spain). It is planned to
collaborate with Dr G Gorini and colleagues in the evaluation of
the optimum method to assess ETS. This will be facilitated by
supplying data to test the conclusions from their study using their
"synoptic tables" and our measured data.
In 2004 exposure measurements were conducted for the most part
in bars. A pilot study measuring particles in the home was
conducted and preparations were made to conduct measurements in
psychiatric hospitals. A meeting took place with Manel Norbot in
Barcelona to discuss collaboration of findings.
Professor Clancy cooperated with Dublin City Council, Dublin
Institute of Technology, and the EU Joint Research Centre in the
planning and launch of the Peoples Project. This Project is a
European wide study of exposure to Benzene. Tobacco smoke is the
main indoor source of Benzene.
A study of the media campaign which accompanied the proposed
introduction of the ban to asses it characteristics and influence
will be conducted. This project will analyse the Irish Media
Coverage of the smoking ban in work-places from November 2003 to
April 2004 and assess the effectiveness of the media strategies
adopted by all concerned bodies.
Project meetings in 2004 allowed the team to refine project
methodology. A suitably qualified and experienced researcher was
As a surrogate for health effects it was proposed to study the
pharmaco-economics surrounding the ban in terms of cardiovascular
and respiratory drug usage changes as indicators of early changes
in health. The objective of this component of the research project
was to determine the implications of the smoking in the workplace
ban which commenced on the 29th March 2004 on cardiovascular and
respiratory drug utilisation and expenditure.
Project meetings in 2004 allowed the research objectives to be
clarified and protocols established.
Research Partners and Associates engaged in the ENSP Project are
Prof Luke Clancy, Director General, Research Institute for a
Tobacco Free Society
Dr Pat Goodman, Lecturer in Physics, Dublin Institute of
Prof. James McLaughlin, Senior Lecturer in Physics, University
Dr. Michael Barry, Director of the National Pharmacoeconomics
Centre, St James's Hospital, Dublin.
Dr. Brian Trench, Senior Lecturer and Head of School of
Communications, Dublin City University, Ireland
Ms Marie McCaffrey, Dublin Institute of Technology.
Mr Kevin Kelleher, University College, Dublin
Mr Colin Hogg, University College, Dublin
Ms Michelle Agnew, St James's Hospital, Dublin.
Mr Declan Fahy, Dublin City University, Ireland.
Programme Grant Application
to the Health Research Board.
A programme grant application was submitted to the Health
Research Board (HRB) in September 2004. The research programme
proposed to examine the health effects of tobacco smoking and
passive smoking in Ireland particularly with regard to the impact
of the workplace ban. It was proposed that measurements of
cardiovascular health would be collected including
- mortality from routinely collected data
- hospital admissions
- use of cardiovascular medications
- ICU and chest pain clinic admissions
It was planned to monitor respiratory health by questionnaire,
pulmonary function assessment, hospital admissions and
Health effects on children were to be evaluated using ISSAC and
This application also proposed to study the determinants of the
demand for smoking and estimates of marketing expenditure on
smoking and anti-smoking campaigns and to evaluate the economic
costs of smoking. The study also proposed to assess the effects of
price on tobacco consumption.
A response from the HRB in October 2004 proved the application
to be unsuccessful.
In partnership with Prof Gerard Hastings of the Centre for
Tobacco Control Research, University of Stirling, Scotland,
preparations commenced to establish a Research Fellowship in
Tobacco Control in Ireland. A number of meetings took place in both
Dublin and Scotland. Prof Clancy met with both Prof Gerard Hastings
and Prof Ron Borland of ITC (International Tobacco Control Survey)
in the frame of ERS, Glasgow 2004.
The aim of the fellowship is to develop a researcher who can
build tobacco control research capacity for Ireland. At the end of
the Fellowship period it is expected the successful candidate to be
well on the way to establishing a leadership role in Irish tobacco
control research. It is planned that the research associate will
initially focus on the analysis of previously collected data on
smoking prevalence, including data from the following surveys:-
- ITC Ireland data Set
- OTC prevalence data
It is envisaged that the appointee will contribute on an ongoing
basis to RIFTFS research projects, originate and contribute to peer
reviewed publications and reports and submit at least one
competitive research grant application to advance tobacco control
research in Ireland.
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The Research Institute for a Tobacco
Free Society would like to acknowledge the support of its partners
- The Office of Tobacco Control
- ASH Ireland
- The Irish Heart Foundation
- The Irish Cancer Society
The Institute appreciates the financial support provided by the
Department of Health and Children and the Board of the Royal City
of Dublin Hospital.